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Lapses in memory occur more frequently with age, yet the reasons for this increasing forgetfulness have not always been clear. According to new research from Concordia University, older individuals have reduced learning and memory capacity because their minds tend to be cluttered with irrelevant information when performing tasks. Published in The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, these findings offer new insights into why aging is associated with a decline in memory and may lead to practical solutions. “The first step of our study was to test the working memory of a younger and older population and compare the results,” says Mervin Blair, first author, psychology PhD student and a member of Concordia’s Centre for Research in Human Development (CRDH). “In our study, working

memory refers to the ability of both retaining and processing information.” Some 60 participants took part in the study: Half were an average of 23 years old, while the other half was about 67 years old. Each participant was asked to perform a working memory task, which included recalling and processing different pieces of information. “Overall, we showed that our older population had reduced working memory than the younger population,” says Blair. “Younger adults were better than the older adults at recalling and processing information.” “Our study was novel because we looked at how the ability to both recall and process information at the same time changes as people get older,” adds Karen Li, senior author and a Concordia psychology professor and member of the CRDH. Older people don’t purge irrelevant info; The next step was to determine if there was a time frame when the ability to delete irrelevant information, known as inhibition deletion, changed. This was measured using a sequential memory task. Images were displayed in a random order and participants were required to respond to each image in a pre-learned manner. Once again, the youngsters outperformed their older counterparts. “The older adults had poor inhibition, repeatedly responding to previously relevant images,” says Blair. Analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the ability to clear irrelevant information and working memory ability. “Poor inhibition predicted a decline in the recall component of working memory and it also predicted decline in the processing component of working memory,” says Blair. “Basically, older adults are less able to keep irrelevant information out of their consciousness, which

then impacts on other mental abilities.” For those who are having trouble remembering, Blair suggests that focusing and reducing mental clutter may help. “Reduce clutter; if you don’t, you may not get anything done.” Keeping a mind clutter-free can be more difficult as people age, especially during periods of stress when people focus on stressors, yet Blair says relaxation exercises can help de-clutter the brain. What’s more, the brain continues to function optimally into old age when it is mentally stimulated by learning a new language, playing an instrument, completing crossword puzzles, keeping an active social life and exercising. Partners in research: This work was supported by funds from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.  – Dr  Mervin Blair. My research background is in the area of degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer’s disease and the frontotemporal dementias. However, my current research interest is to investigate the role of executive control processes in normative aging. In my master’s thesis, I examined how we regulate sequential actions, which is necessary to successfully carry out various daily activities such as meal preparation and driving. In particular, I examined inhibitory and chunking processes in sequential action and the importance of external support for older adults. Overall, both young and older adults chunked the sequence in a similar manner but

older adults had more difficulty suppressing responses to previous items. Further, environmental support using articulation strategies was beneficial for older adults. My primary research goal is to gain a better understanding of cognitive processes and changes in older adult populations from the perspective of both normative and pathological aging research.  – Prof. Karen Li Associate Director of CRDH and Associate Professor, Department of Psychology. Research Lab: Laboratory for Adult Development and Cognitive Aging.My research focuses on cognitive and attentional processes involved in multiple-task performance in adulthood and healthy aging. I am interested in studying situations in which multiple tasks are either carried out in sequential order, or are performed concurrently. A portion of my current work investigates the coordination of cognitive and motor tasks in old age (e.g., walking, balance, finger sequencing, with a concurrent cognitive load). An important theme in my research is to understand the adaptive strategies that older adults develop in response to declines in cognitive and sensorimotor abilities. I am a member and Associate Director of the Centre for Research in Human Development (CRDH), which is devoted to multidisciplinary approaches to the study of development across all life periods. Graduate students working with me are eligible for financial support from CRDH and participate in regular workshops and seminars offered by the Centre. Contact: Sylvain-Jacques Desjardins Senior advisor, external communications Concordia University. News from: Concordia University – Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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