NASA’S Kepler Mission Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

NASA’s Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system. The discovery of this so-called exoplanet is based on more than eight months of data collected by the spacecraft from May 2009 to early January 2010.”All of Kepler’s best capabilities have converged to yield the first solid evidence of a rocky planet orbiting a star other than our sun,” said Natalie Batalha, Kepler’s deputy science team lead at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., and primary author of a paper on the discovery accepted by the Astrophysical Journal. “The Kepler team made a commitment in 2010 about finding the telltale signatures of small planets in the data, and it’s beginning to pay off.” Kepler’s ultra-precise photometer measures the tiny decrease in a star’s brightness that occurs when a planet crosses in front of it. The size of the planet can be derived from these periodic dips in brightness. The distance between the planet and the star is calculated by measuring the time between successive dips as the planet orbits the star. Kepler is the first NASA mission capable of finding Earth-size planets

in or near the habitable zone, the region in a planetary system where liquid water can exist on the planet’s surface. However, since it orbits once every 0.84 days, Kepler-10b is more than 20 times closer to its star than Mercury is to our sun and not in the habitable zone. Kepler-10 was the first star identified that could potentially harbor a small transiting planet, placing it at the top of the list for ground-based observations with the W.M. Keck Observatory 10-meter telescope in Hawaii. Scientists waiting for a signal to confirm Kepler-10b as a planet were not disappointed. Keck was able to measure tiny changes in the star’s spectrum, called Doppler shifts, caused by the telltale tug exerted by the orbiting planet on the star. “The discovery of Kepler-10b, a bone-fide rocky world, is a significant milestone in the search for planets similar to our own,” said Douglas Hudgins, Kepler program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Although this planet is not in the habitable zone, the exciting find showcases the kinds of discoveries made possible by the mission and the promise of many more to come,” he said. “Our knowledge of the planet is only as good as the knowledge of the star it orbits,” said Batalha. Because Kepler-10 is one of the brighter stars being targeted by Kepler, scientists were able to detect high frequency variations in the star’s brightness generated by stellar oscillations, or starquakes. “This is the analysis that really allowed us to pin down Kepler-10b’s properties.,” she added. “We have a clear signal in the data arising from light waves that travel within the interior of the star,” said Hans

Keldsen, an astronomer at the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium at Aarhus University in Denmark. Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium scientists use the information to better understand the star, just as earthquakes are used to learn about Earth’s interior structure. “As a result of this analysis, Kepler-10 is one of the most well characterized planet-hosting stars in the universe next to our sun,” Kjeldsen said. That’s good news for the team studying Kepler-10b. Accurate stellar properties yield accurate planet properties. In the case of Kepler-10b, the picture that emerges is of a rocky planet with a mass 4.6 times that of Earth and with an average density of 8.8 grams per cubic centimeter — similar to that of an iron dumbbell. “This planet is unequivocally rocky, with a surface you could stand on,” commented team member Dimitar Sasselov, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge and a Kepler co-investigator. “All of Kepler’s best capabilities have converged for this discovery,” Batalha said, “yielding the first solid evidence of a rocky planet orbiting a star other than our sun.” Ames manages Kepler’s ground system development, mission operations and science data analysis. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., managed Kepler mission development.Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. in Boulder, Colo., developed the Kepler flight system and supports mission operations with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder. The Space Telescope Science Institute in

Baltimore archives, hosts and distributes the Kepler science data. Natalie Batalha, Deputy Science Team Lead. Natalie Batalha, deputy science team lead for NASA’s Kepler Mission, always thought she would follow in her parent’s footsteps. She attended University of California Berkeley studying business. However, as her interest in science grew, Batalha hoped to merge the two career paths of business and science. “I remember the exact moment that I decided to enroll in physics. There are certain moments in your life that you never forget. That was one of those moments,” Batalha recalled. Batalha believes that college is a place for self-discovery, where a young person finds their true passions. College is the place where Batalha began to understand her love of science and so she took the road less traveled, deviating from studying business.”I took freshman physics and that just changed everything,” Batalha said. “You could explain so many things with math. What impressed me was how ordered the universe is. You can write down a mathematical expression, not only to explain behavior of something but also to predict future behavior. When you internalize that fact, you begin to fully realize the beauty of it. The secrets of the universe are there for us to discover and the key to their discovery is math and geometry. That was amazing to me,” Batalha said. While at Berkeley, Batalha planned to apply for a summer internship at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO). The flyer for the application had been on her desk for months. Batalha procrastinated on applying, nervous that she

would not be accepted. However, she was accepted and that internship led to a career in astronomy. “That was my first experience of doing research,” said Batalha. “Up to this point, I didn’t understand what it meant to do research; the professor I worked for gave me a challenging problem to solve, and the process of figuring out a solution to the problem was fun. I surprised myself by actually coming up with a creative solution. It made me re-think what I perceived to be my strengths and weaknesses.” Batalha’s advisor at WIRO suggested she contact Gibor Basri, a professor at UC Berkeley, when she returned to school. Basri hired her on the spot to work as an undergraduate student researcher. “It was with Gibor that I really experienced the thrill of discovery and began to understand the excitement of the scientific method,” said Batalha. Basri didn’t realize he was playing cupid when he moved his new student researcher and his new post-doc, Celso Batalha, into the same office. The couple married within two years, ended up sharing an office for 13 years, and have since published numerous papers together. Batalha was visiting Basri in 1997 and he was doing work at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. Batalha was interested in working in astronomy at Ames and near the end of her first post-doc, she emailed William Borucki, the science principal investigator for the Kepler mission. He interviewed her and added her to the science team. When the section of the Milky Way was chosen as the area to be studied for the Kepler mission, Batalha was one of the few people who realized that it might not be the optimal place to point the telescope. Her experience working on the Vulcan project, a robotic ground-based telescope at Lick Observatory in San José, Calif. that served as an early testbed for Kepler, gave her the expertise to recognize the benefit of moving slightly above the plane of the Milky Way. Rachel Hoover Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. Trent J. Perrotto Headquarters, Washington. News from: NASA

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