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Convegno “ Perché la/il musicoterapista nella scuola?”

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Convegno “ Perché la/il musicoterapista nella scuola?”
si terrà Sabato 18 aprile 2009 dalle ore 9 alle 17
nella Sala della Provincia di Lucca

Con il Patrocinio di: Provincia di Lucca, Coordinamento Musicoterapia Democratica www.mtdem.it
Regione Toscana, Istruzione Direzione Toscana, Comune di Firenze Q4, Comune di Fiesole, Cred Versilia, Associazione Sonora, Girasole Associazione Culturale www.cerchiogirasole.com
Il titolo del convegno “Perché la/il musicoterapista nella scuola?” apre spazi di riflessione sulle esperienze di musicoterapia nella scuola, realizzate da musicoterapisti professionisti, a sostegno del disagio relazionale, di apprendimento, sociale e culturale.
Le esperienze tendono a mostrare in modo essenziale e diretto la metodologia impiegata, del suono e della musica come sostegno della relazione pedagogica, per implementare gli standard formativi.
Gli interventi si centrano sul linguaggio musicale per attenuare quelle difficoltà di socializzazione e/o di apprendimento che si riscontrano diffusamente in ciascun gruppo classe, con caratteristiche diverse ma sempre presenti dalla scuola materna alla scuola media superiore.
Tramite il suono il musicoterapista focalizza l’attenzione sul fenomeno del disagio scolastico, relativamente al disagio socio affettivo e relazionale, con particolare riguardo all’integrazione interculturale e ai disturbi di apprendimento nella dimensione della disabilità e del cognitivo in generale. Una proposta sinergica con l’impegno degli insegnanti, per la realizzazione di una scuola di valore.
L’attività del musicoterapista viene avvalorata dagli studi delle neuroscienze,attente alle evidenze dei circuiti neuronali della corteccia cerebrale che si attivano durante l’ascolto, rinforzando i processi creativi dell’emisfero destro e il ragionamento spazio-temporale, contribuendo con la percezione alla crescita e all’apprendimento. L’attività musicale attiva i neuroni specchio, che potenziati dall’ascolto si riflettono sulla capacità immaginativa ed ideativa del ragazzo. Quindi la musica influisce sulle abilità cognitive (Sloboda), integrando le potenzialità innate del soggetto.
Sul piano affettivo il linguaggio musicale permette di comunicare sensazioni emozioni ed anche problematiche, rendendole condivisibili e socialmente accettabili. Questo processo solleva da situazioni ansiogene e facilita l’espressione, nonché riduce i problemi di apprendimento (Gordon).
La musica proposta dal musicoterapista aiuta quindi a sviluppare atteggiamenti, capacità e conoscenze atti a comprendere lo sconosciuto e a relazionarsi con gli altri in modo più adeguato.
Le strutture del suono/musica, infatti, sostengono le multiformi situazioni di disagio, presenti nella realtà scolastica, riguardanti i bambini problematici e/o diversamente-abili e potenziano abilità specifiche.
Il convegno è un momento di incontro e confronto tra i musicoterapisti provenienti da tutta Italia, presentando esperienze di comunicazione sonora, centrate sulle diverse abilità e differenze culturali, con una metodologia aperta al confronto con gli operatori interessati alla scuola: insegnanti, dirigenti, funzionari e politici, con cui condividiamo tempo ed impegno per realizzare il percorso formativo dei ragazzi.
La presenza di rappresentanti delle istituzioni garantisce uno scambio reale di proposte che, auspichiamo, possano aprire ad una nuova operatività, per una maggiore funzionalità della scuola pubblica, una scuola di valore in ogni senso.
Il convegno, con i suoi numerosi interventi di approfondimento si presenta come uno spazio di formazione per i musicoterapisti ed un’offerta di aggiornamento e formazione per gli insegnanti.

Per informazioni: Comitato Scientifico
Maria Broccardi 340 5467045 Paola Giomi 333 3629926

Segue articolo pubblicato su GoodNews
Medicina: lo studio, musica aiuta a riacquistare vista dopo ictus

Musica per sognare, ballare e rilassarsi. Ma anche per riacquistare la vista danneggiata da un ictus, a patto che la melodia sia di nostro gradimento. E’ quanto emerge da uno studio pubblicato sulla rivista ‘Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’, a firma di ricercatori dell’Imperial College di Londra (Gb).
L’esperimento è stato condotto su tre pazienti che avevano perso la metà del loro campo visivo a causa di un ictus. Un fenomeno a cui va incontro fino al 60% delle persone colpite da un attacco. I volontari si sono sottoposti a un test durante l’ascolto delle loro canzoni preferite, di musica da loro non apprezzata o in silenzio. I risultati suggeriscono che i pazienti che avevano ascoltato melodie gradite, riuscivano a identificare forme e luci colorate nella parte di campo visivo danneggiato in maniera molto più accurata rispetto a chi era stato costretto ad ascoltare rock o punk, quando il genere preferito era invece il classico. In particolare, nel primo caso i volontari sono riusciti a riconoscere la luce nel 65% dei tentativi, mentre nel secondo la percentuale è scesa al 15%.
I ricercatori sono convinti che la musica generi emozioni positive, che potrebbero aiutare a produrre più efficacemente segnali diretti al cervello, aumentando la capacità di elaborare gli stimoli esterni. Le scansioni cerebrali effettuate sui partecipanti allo studio hanno infatti confermato che la musica piacevole attiva le aree del cervello collegate con le risposte emozionali positive, e che questa attività sfocia in un miglioramento della performance anche visiva del paziente. news from adnkronos
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Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients to improve or maintain their health. In some instances, the client’s needs are addressed directly through music; in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the client and therapist. Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including: psychiatric disorders, medical problems, physical handicaps, sensory impairments, developmental disabilities, substance abuse, communication disorders, interpersonal problems, and aging. It is also used to: improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host of other health-related activities. Music therapists are found in nearly every area of the helping professions. Some commonly found practices include developmental work (communication, motor skills, etc.) with individuals with special needs, songwriting and listening in reminiscence/orientation work with the elderly, processing and relaxation work, and rhythmic entrainment for physical rehabilitation in stroke victims.
The Turco-Persian psychologist and music theorist al-Farabi known as “Alpharabius” in Europe, dealt with music therapy in his treatise Meanings of the Intellect, where he discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul. Robert Burton wrote in the 17th century in his classic work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia.It is considered one of the expressive therapies.
Music Therapy as Stroke Therapy Music has been shown to affect portions of the brain. Part of this therapy is the ability of music to affect emotions and social interactions. Research by Nayak et al showed that music therapy is associated with a decrease in depression, improved mood, and a reduction in state anxiety. Both descriptive and experimental studies have documented effects of music on quality of life, involvement with the environment, expression of feelings, awareness and responsiveness, positive associations, and socialization. Additionally, Nayak et al. found that music therapy had a positive effect on social and behavioral outcomes and showed some encouraging trends with respect to mood.
More recent research suggests that music can increase patient’s motivation and positive emotions. Current research also suggests that when music therapy is used in conjunction with traditional therapy it improves success rates significantly.Therefore, it is hypothesized that music therapy helps stroke victims recover faster and with more success by increasing the patient’s positive emotions and motivation, allowing them to be more successful and driven to participate in traditional therapies.
Research has shown the ability of music therapy to increase positive social interactions, positive emotions, and motivation in stroke patients. Wheeler et al. found that group music therapy sessions increased the ease at which stroke patients responded to social interaction and increased positive attitude reports from patient families, while individual sessions helped to motivate patients for treatment. Another study examined the effect of music therapy on mood of stroke patients and found similar results that showed decreased anxiety, fatigue, and hostile mood states [11]. Additionally, Nayak et al. found improved social interaction (more actively involved and cooperative) when music therapy was used in stroke recovery programs.
Recent studies have examined the effect of music therapy on stroke patients, when combined with traditional therapy. One study found the incorporation of music with therapeutic upper extremity exercises gave patients more positive emotional effects than exercise alone. In another study, Nayak et al. discovered found that rehabilitation staff rated participants in the music therapy group as more actively involved and cooperative in therapy than those in the control group. Their findings gave preliminary support to the efficacy of music therapy as a complementary therapy for social functioning and participation in rehabilitation with a trend toward improvement in mood during acute rehabilitation.
Although positive changes have been associated with music therapy, some considerations must be taken into account. While scientists have determined that a variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when listening to music, broad conclusions cannot yet be made concerning the relationship and the direction of the relationship between music and emotion.Additionally, there may be mediating factors which affect the success of music therapy. For example, Nayak et al. found the more impaired an individual’s social behavior was at the outset of treatment, the more likely he or she was to benefit from music therapy.Additionally, they noted the effectiveness of music therapy may be moderated by the time frame of the treatment. It is possible that music therapy has a more pronounced effect on mood the closer to injury it is applied.
Current research shows that when music therapy is used in conjunction with traditional therapy, it improves rates of recovery, and emotional and social deficits resulting from stroke. A study by Jeong & Kim examined the impact of music therapy when combined with traditional stroke therapy in a community-based rehabilitation program.Thirty-three stroke survivors were randomized into one of two groups: the experimental group, which combined rhythmic music and specialized rehabilitation movement for eight weeks; and a control group, that received referral information for traditional therapy (and were assumed to have sought traditional therapy). The results of this study showed that participants in the experimental group gained more flexibility, wider range of motion, more positive moods, and increased frequency and quality of social interactions.
Music has also been used in recovery of motor skills. Rhythmical auditory stimulation in a musical context in combination with traditional gait therapy improved the ability of stroke patients to walk.The study consisted of two treatment conditions, one which received traditional gait therapy and another which received the gait therapy in combination with the rhythmical auditory stimulation. During the rhythmical auditory stimulation, stimulation was played back measure by measure, and was initiated by the patient’s heal-strikes. Each condition received fifteen sessions of therapy. The results revealed that the rhythmical auditory stimulation group showed more improvement in stride length, symmetry deviation, walking speed and rollover path length (all indicators for improved walking gait) than the group that received traditional therapy alone.
Schneider et al. also studied the effects of combining music therapy with standard motor rehabilitation methods. In this experiment, researchers recruited stroke patients without prior musical experience and trained half of them in an intensive step by step training program that occurred fifteen times over three weeks, in addition to traditional treatment. These participants were trained to use fine both fine and gross motor movements by learning how to use the piano and drums. The other half of the patients received only traditional treatment over the course of the three weeks. Three-dimensional movement analysis and clinical motor tests showed participants who received the additional music therapy had significantly better speed, precision, and smoothness of movements as compared to the control subjects. Participants who received music therapy also showed a significant improvement in every-day motor activities as compared to the control group. Wilson, Parsons, & Reutens looked at the effect of melodic intonation therapy (MIT) on speech production in a male singer with severe Broca’s aphasia. In this study, thirty novel phrases were taught in three conditions: unrehearsed, rehearsed verbal production (repetition), or rehearsed verbal production with melody (MIT). Results showed that phrases taught in the MIT condition had superior production, and that compared to rehearsal, effects of MIT lasted longer.
Another study examined the incorporation of music with therapeutic upper extremity exercises on pain perception in stroke victims. Over the course of eight weeks, stroke victims participated in upper extremity exercises (of the hand, wrist, and shoulder joints) in conjunction with one of the three conditions: song, karaoke accompaniment, and no music. Patients participated in each condition once, according to a randomized order, and rated their perceived pain immediately after the session. Results showed that although there was no significant difference in pain rating across the conditions, video observations revealed more positive affect and verbal responses while performing upper extremity exercises with both music and karaoke accompaniment. Nayak et al examined the combination of music therapy with traditional stroke rehabilitation and also found the addition of music therapy improved mood and social interaction. Participants who had suffered traumatic brain injury or stroke were placed in one of two conditions: standard rehabilitation or standard rehabilitation along with music therapy. Participants received three treatments per week for up to ten treatments. Therapists found that participants who received music therapy in conjunction with traditional methods had improved social interaction and mood.

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